Low back pain can be disabling; however, most cases heal with time (2-12 weeks) and with conservative therapy. Surgery is suggested when symptoms persist and begin to affect daily activities. Low back surgery may be indicated for treating various underlying causes of back pain such as spinal fractures, degenerative disc disease, nerve compression, stenosis (narrowing of the spinal canal), tumors, infection, instability or bowel and bladder difficulties.
Herniated disc is a condition in which the outer fibers (annulus) of the intervertebral disc are damaged causing the soft inner material of the nucleus pulposus to rupture out of its space. A herniated disc, common in the lower back (lumbar spine) occurs when there is a tear in the outer lining of the disc (annulus fibrosus). This causes the inner jelly-like material (nucleus pulposus) to leak out and place pressure on the adjacent spinal nerve root.
Lumbar stenosis is the compression of spinal nerves caused by narrowing of the spinal canal and it is one of the common causes of low back pain. Spinal stenosis can also affect the spine in the neck region. The symptoms include back pain, burning or aching type of pain in the buttocks that radiates to the legs (sciatica), weakness in the legs or "foot drop”.
Lumbar degenerative disc disease (DDD) is a common cause of low back pain. The vertebrae are cushioned by intervertebral discs which act as shock absorbers, for the spine. Over time, these natural shock absorbers wear out and degenerate due to aging, trauma or injury leading to DDD.
Piriformis Syndrome is an uncommon rare neuromuscular condition caused by the compression of the sciatic nerve by the piriformis muscle. The sciatic nerve is a thick and long nerve that passes below or through the piriformis muscle and goes down the back of the leg and finally ends in the feet in the form of smaller nerves.
Sciatica is a painful condition caused by the irritation of the sciatic nerve. The sciatic nerve is the longest nerve in our bodies. It begins in the lower back and extends through the buttocks down the back of each leg to the thighs and feet.
Ankylosing spondylitis is a systemic disease affecting other tissues and organs throughout the body. It can cause inflammation of faraway joints and organs such as the eyes, heart, lungs and kidneys. Ankylosing spondylitis is 3 times more common in men than in women and affects people of all age groups including children, which is referred to as juvenile ankylosing spondylitis.